THE DARK AGES 115 Orleans; and from this time forward the responsibility of the Church for the maintenance and conduct of elementary and grammar schools everywhere was definitely recognized in a long series of enactments of Church Councils. The General Council of 826 under Pope Eugenius, for example, enjoined that " in bishops' sees and in other places where necessary, care and diligence should be exhibited in the appointment of masters and doctors to teach faithfully grammar and the liberal arts, because in them especially God's commands are made clear and explained." These decrees, it is to be noted, presuppose the existence of Church schools. Their object is not the creation of a new system, but the improvement and extension of one already established. As a matter of fact, there is abundant evidence to show that by the end of the Eighth Century (when Theodulph and Charlemagne were prescribing universal education) all the cathedrals and collegiate churches had a song school and a grammar school associated with them, and that the song school was no longer a purely professional school for the training of choristers, but an elementary school as well; and the grammar school in like fashion no longer merely preparatory for theological study, but an institu- tion in which the future clergy received a general education in company with all the professional classes. In many of the humbler parish churches, further, there were song schools, some- times taught by the priests themselves, which served for the popular education. This expansion of the functions of the Church schools naturally brought about very considerable changes in their organization. At first the bishops were themselves the teachers. Thus Theodore of Tarsus, the great archbishop appointed to the see of Canterbury in 668, whose educational work gave England a pre-eminence in education which it retained for more than a century, went about the whole country in company with his friend Hadrian teaching everywhere* " And because both men were abundantly learned in sacred and in profane literature alike," Bede tells us,* " streams of saving knowledge flowed from them to irrigate the hearts of the crowds of disciples who gathered around them, so that with the volumes of the sacred text they instructed their hearers in the art of metre, in astronomy and in ecclesiastical * iv, a.